Objectives. There has been no systematic review of studies aimed to predict differential responses to medication regimens for asthma controller therapies in pediatric patients. The aim of the present study was to summarize those identifying biomarkers for the different asthma controller therapies.
Methods. Studies published by June 2019 that report phenotypic or genotypic characteristics or biomarkers that could potentially serve as response predictors to asthma controller therapies in pediatric patients were included. The quality of studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale tool.
Results. Of 385 trials identified, 30 studies were included. Children with asthma and a positive family history of asthma, with more severe disease, of the white race, with allergy biomarkers, nonobese, with lower lung function, high bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, or having variants in the FCER2 and CRHR1 gene respond better to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Younger age (<10 years), short disease duration (<4 years), high cotinine and urinary leukotriene E4 (LTE4) levels, and 5/5 ALOX5 were associated with a better response to leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA). For patients that remain symptomatic, white Hispanics were more likely to respond to LTRA, blacks to ICS, white non-Hispanics to LTRA or LABA, and children without a history of eczema, regardless of race or ethnicity to LABA set-up therapy. In severe persistent asthma, those with atopy and body mass index greater than or equal 25 were more likely to benefit from omalizumab.
Conclusion. Several phenotypic characteristics, biomarkers, or pharmacogenomics markers could be useful for predicting the best drug for asthma treatment.